Outcomes of Children with Attention Dificit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Global Functioning and Symptoms Persistence



Ministry of Health, School Health, Manama, Bahrain


Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) persist into adolescence and adult life with different degrees. Many adolescents with ADHD show antisocial behaviour and low educational achievement. These issues have not been validated in the region. The objective of this study was to assess the global functioning and behaviour of children with ADHD growing up to adolescence after 10 years of initial diagnoses. Parents were interviewed using structured schedule, Conner’s short version test, and the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Nearly half of our sample had low academic achievement and 36% had no friends. A quarter of the cases were smokers, one admitted abusing drugs and one had attempted suicide. One third of the sample continued to have ADHD symptoms. Adolescents with ADHD shared the same findings regarding school performance and peer relationship with published reports, but different representations with regards to drug use, suicide and other impulsive behaviour. A follow up study into adult life using a control group was recommended.