Epidemiology of Depression and Health Care Utilization in the General Population of Latvia

ABSTRACT SL13-2

JELENA VRUBLEVSKA
Riga Stradins University, Department of Psychiatry and Narcology, Riga, Latvia

MARCIS TRAPENCIERIS
Riga Stradins University, Department of Psychiatry and Narcology, Riga, Latvia

ELMARS RANCANS
Riga Stradins University, Department of Psychiatry and Narcology, Riga, Latvia

ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION

Two large nationwide epidemiologic studies on prevalence of depression in the general population were conducted. In first study, to assess depression, the participants were interviewed using The Patient Health Questionnaire-9; a score of ≥10 was defined as indicating the presence of a depressive episode. The point prevalence of depression was estimated at 6.7% (95%CI5.6%–7.9%). The odds of having depression in last two weeks were higher in females, in urban dwellers (though not in the capital city, Riga), in persons with non-Latvian ethnicity, with alcohol dependence, with poor subjective health status and having a dissatisfaction with life. In second study the participants were interviewed using the depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Self-reported health care utilization and somatic illness were also assessed. The 12-month prevalence of major depression was 7.9% (95%CI 7.0–8.9), while for minor depression it was 7.7% (95%CI 6.8–8.7). We did not find a substantial difference in the relative risk ratio (RRR 1.7 for female) for having major depression by gender. RRR of having major depression was higher for those who had used healthcare services six or more times (RRR 2.0), those who had three or more somatic disorders during the past 12 months (RRR 2.3), those who perceived their health status as being below average (RRR 8.3), and those who were occasional smokers (RRR 3.0). RRR of having minor depression was increased for those who had at least three somatic disorders (RRR 2.3), those who received disability pension (RRR 1.9), and those who perceived their health status to be below average (RRR 3.0). Our findings outline certain individuals who might be at a higher risk of having depression. The factors associated with major or minor depression could be used as indicators for health providers to initiate screening for depression.